Telecommunications Technologies Reference (Networking Technology)


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We are engineering professionals with a singular purpose: to better humanity through advancements in communications and networking technology. Explore Membership. Visit Our Site. Our in-depth training courses cover a wide variety of current topics in communications technology and offers the most up-to-date technical content available anywhere. Browse Our Courses. Learn More. Submit a Nomination. These parameters represent the power transmission lines and operational parameters of the tower. So, the system can implement real-time monitoring and early warnings of disaster for minimizing the damage of smart grid caused by natural disasters.

In [ 41 ], IoT-based smart grid applications were classified into three types: a key equipment state monitoring, b information collection, and c smart grid control. It also describes the types and characteristics of IoT-based smart grids. As a result, a reference architecture for smart grid IoT based on the characteristics was proposed.

There are three layers in this reference architecture: perception layer, transport layer, and application layer.

For security protection of IoT-based smart grids, a secure access control system is proposed for ensuring that IoT-based smart grid devices can securely access the Internet. In [ 42 ], to monitor, collect, and transmit remote healthcare data, a system architecture based on IoT was proposed. To transfer data to a gateway, IEEE Through transmitting data based on important parameters extracted from the collected data, these two rules are involved in the decision-making process.

As a result, these developed rule engines can minimize network traffic and save energy consumption. To solve issues such as reliability, interoperability, performance, energy efficiency, scalability, and security, the authors in [ 43 ] presented a smart e-Health gateway based on IoT. Based on taking responsibility of handling the sensor networks implemented in the remote healthcare center, this smart gateway can address these issues.

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Based on the achieved results from this case study, the smart e-Health gateway can provide services such as fast data processing, storage, and embedded data mining. The IoT can be used in all aspects of transportation such as geo services, collection of data related to passenger counting, communication, and smart ticketing. In [ 44 ], Eurotech provides IT solutions that can help in connecting every public transport element and use the technical tools to connect IT infrastructure with sensors and other devices. To enhance the traffic conditions in cities, the Kapsch Group in [ 45 ] investigated how Internet technologies can be leveraged.

In [ 46 ], the authors presented smart factory based on IoT architecture and defined issues such as optimized decision-making, flexibility, remote monitoring, and mass customization, with respect to energy management. By using the proposed mechanism, energy consumption is improved in a smart factory by incorporating energy data into production management. Water utilization and irrigation can be improved by leveraging weather forecast and farm data, key trends and anomalies, and evapotranspiration index.

Building IoT-based smart farming will enable farmers and growers to reduce waste and enhance productivity ranging from the number of journeys the farm vehicles have made to the quantity of fertilizer utilized. In IoT-based smart farming, with the help of sensors such as light, humidity, temperature, soil moisture sensors, a system is built for monitoring the crop field and automating the irrigation system. This system is highly efficient when compared with the conventional approach, and it gives farmers the ability to monitor the field conditions from anywhere.

Because of the increasing awareness of environmental issues all over the world, green IoT technology initiatives should be taken into consideration. The concept of greening IoT refers to the technologies that make the IoT environment more healthy in a friendly way by making use of facilities and storages that enable subscribers to gather, store, access, and manage various information. The enabling technologies for green IoT are called information and communication technologies ICTs [ 47 ]. ICTs can cause climate change in the world [ 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 ] because with the growing application of ICT much more energy has been consumed.

The consideration for sustainability of ICTs has concentrated on data centers optimization through techniques of sharing infrastructure, which leads to increasing the energy efficiency, reducing CO 2 emissions and e-waste of material disposals [ 53 ]. Therefore, green ICT technologies play an essential role in green IoT and provide many benefits to the society such as decreasing the energy used for designing, manufacturing, and distributing ICT devices and equipment.

Greening IoT is the practice of designing, manufacturing, disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems i. The main objective of greening IoT is to reduce pollution and Co 2 emission, exploit environmental conservation, and minimize the costs of things operating and power consumption [ 55 , 56 , 57 ]. Details about industrial emissions are analyzed and provided in [ 58 ]. These emissions influence environmental change in different regions and over time. Reducing the energy consumption of IoT devices is needed to make the environment healthier [ 59 ].

Due to the continuous development of green ICT technologies, green IoT provides a high possibility to support environmental sustainability and economic growth [ 57 ].


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These valuable and emerging technologies make the world greener and smarter. Therefore, this section reviews the core of green IoT technologies that demonstrate efforts for constructing a green and smart world.

Green IoT consists of designing and leveraging aspects. Green IoT focuses on reducing IoT energy usage and CO 2 emissions, a necessity for building a smart world with the sustainability of intelligent everything.

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The IoT element can be used to eliminate CO 2 emissions, reduce the pollutions and enhance the energy efficiency. Since M2M is equipped with sensors and communication add-ons, these devices can communicate with each other and sense the world. However, sensors will consume high power for executing the tasks. In networking, green IoT aims to identify the location of the relay and number of nodes which satisfy budget constraints and energy saving.

To achieve a smart and sustainable world, green IoT plays a significant role in deploying IoT to reduce energy consumption [ 47 ], CO 2 emission [ 61 ] and pollution [ 61 , 62 , 63 ]; exploit environmental conservation [ 64 ]; and minimize power consumption [ 65 ].

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Design technologies refer to the energy efficiency of devices, communication protocols, network architectures, and interconnections. Leverage technologies refer to cutting carbon emissions and enhancing energy efficiency. Due to green ICT technologies, green IoT has become more efficient through reducing energy, hazardous emissions, resources consumption, and pollution. Therefore, green IoT is indeed focusing on green manufacturing, green utilization, green design, and green disposal [ 67 ].

These issues are described as follows. Green use : minimizing power consumption of computers and other information systems as well as using them in an environmentally sound manner. Green design : designing energy efficient for green IoT sound components, computers, and servers, and cooling equipment. Green disposal : refurbishing and reusing old computers and recycling unwanted computers and other electronic equipment. Green manufacturing : producing electronic components and computers and other associated subsystems with minimal or no impact on the environment.

The integration of IoT with smart environments has brought about unprecedented opportunities. This section highlights the main opportunities offered by this environment. In an IoT-based smart environment, organizations can collect data about processes and products for analysis in a real-time manner and provide the analyzed information to make appropriate decisions. Based on the decisions taken, the smart environment can rapidly adapt itself and improve operational efficiency that results in higher customer satisfaction. Cost-effective, flexible, and secure cloud-based applications can transform a smart environment into a decision-making platform by collecting data from the environment and transferring them to the cloud through IoT.

The key tasks performed in the cloud server are the analysis of these collected data, decision-making, and prediction of environment parameters. IoT gives companies the ability to build new business models and revenue streams that can create many new business opportunities. IoT has the capability to change the way consumers and businesses follow the world.

Therefore, consumers and businesses will require new services that can assist them to explore this ultra-connected, changing landscape. In addition, IoT can enable companies to create new revenue streams and services on top of traditional services, for example, vending machine vendors offering inventory management to those who supply the goods in the machine. With rapid growth in IoT devices, the data produced by the IoT also grow exponentially. The management of such huge amounts of data will be a challenge in terms of performance.

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Designing intelligent cloud operation management solutions that can ensure the working of a cloud infrastructure at an optimal level will also be necessary. Due to the integration of novel concepts as well as the adaption of existing technologies, IoT is still evolving. Thereby, it supports the development of more competitive, realistic, and advanced IoT-based applications.

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The development of IoT applications based on the client requirements evolves according to the requirements of the users. Moreover, many organizations and interest groups are prepared to standardize IoT-related technologies to ensure more effective and secure applications. The bright future of green IoT will change our future environment to become healthy, green, very high QoS, and sustainable socially, environmentally, and economically.

Recently, the most exciting areas have focused on greening things such as green design and implementations, green communication and networking, integrated RFIDs and sensor networks, green IoT services and applications, energy-saving strategies, mobility and network management, smart objects, the cooperation of homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and green localization. The following research fields need to be researched to develop optimal and efficient solutions for greening IoT: There is a need for unmanned aerial vehicle UAV to replace a massive number of IoT devices, especially in agriculture, traffic and monitoring, which will help to reduce power consumption and pollution.

UAV is a promising technology that will lead to green IoT with low cost and high efficiency. Transmission data from the sensor to the mobile cloud must be more useful. Sensor-cloud is integrating the wireless sensor network and mobile cloud. It is a very hot and promising technology for greening IoT. A green social network such as a service SNaaS may investigate the energy efficiency of the system, service, WSN, and cloud management.

M2M communication plays a critical role to reduce energy use and hazardous emissions. Smart machines must be smarter to enable automated systems.

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Machine automation delay must be minimized in case of traffic and taking necessary and immediate action. Design Green IoT may be introduced from two perspectives which are achieving excellent performance and high QoS. Finding suitable techniques for enhancing QoS parameters i. Then, green IoT can contribute significantly to sustainable, smart, and green environment. To achieve energy-balancing for supporting green communication between IoT devices, the radio frequency energy harvest should be taken into consideration.

More research is needed to develop the design of IoT devices which helps to reduce CO 2 emission and energy usage. The critical task for smart and green environmental life is saving energy and decreasing the CO 2 emission. In this chapter, the overview and benefits of IoT on telecommunication networks and their challenges were introduced to know how to improve our life and society by building smart IoT systems. In addition, the concept of green IoT and its related services and applications were described in detail.

Finally, many research fields, which are needed to develop optimal and efficient solutions for greening IoT, were introduced. I thank both of them for providing guidance to finish this research. Before making any decision or taking any action that may affect your business, you should consult a qualified professional adviser.

Telecommunications Technologies Reference (Networking Technology) Telecommunications Technologies Reference (Networking Technology)
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