Goodness (The Word of God Encyclopedia Book 7)

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Catholic tradition follows the Vulgate version of Galatians in listing 12 fruits: charity, joy, peace, patience, benignity kindness , goodness, longanimity forbearance , mildness gentleness , faith, modesty, continency self-control , and chastity. Aquinas pointed that numbered among the fruits of the Holy Spirit are certain virtues, such as charity, meekness, faith, chastity, and kindness. Though traditionally discussed as nine attributes of the Fruit of the Spirit, the original Greek term translated as "fruit" is singular.

Aquinas explained, "Consequently fruit is mentioned there in the singular, on account of its being generically one, though divided into many species which are spoken of as so many fruits. Agape love denotes an undefeatable benevolence and unconquerable goodwill that always seeks the highest good for others, no matter their behavior. It is a love that gives freely without asking anything in return, and does not consider the worth of its object. Agape describes the unconditional love God has for the world.

Paul describes love in 1 Corinthians —8: [9]. Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It does not dishonor others, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away.

The joy referred to here is deeper than mere happiness; it is rooted in God and comes from Him. Since it comes from God, it is more serene and stable than worldly happiness, which is merely emotional and lasts only for a time. Note: In Hbr , "joyous" represents the phrase meta, "with," followed by chara, lit. The word "peace" comes from the Greek word eirene, the Greek equivalent for the Hebrew word shalom, which expresses the idea of wholeness, completeness, or tranquility in the soul that is unaffected by the outward circumstances or pressures.

The word eirene strongly suggests the rule of order in place of chaos.

2. Faithfulness of God in the New Testament:

The KJV translates Strong's G in the following manner: peace 89x , one 1x , rest 1x , quietness 1x. The outline of Biblical usage is as follows:. Jesus is described as the Prince of Peace, who brings peace to the hearts of those who desire it. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid".

In Matthew he says, "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God. Generally the Greek world applied this word to a man who could avenge himself but did not. This word is often used in the Greek Scriptures in reference to God and God's attitude to humans. Patience , which in some translations is "longsuffering" or "endurance", is defined in Strong's by two Greek words, makrothumia and hupomone.

The first, pronounced mak-roth-oo- mee -ah comes from makros , "long", and thumos, "temper". The process by which scriptures became canons and Bibles was a long one, and its complexities account for the many different Old Testaments which exist today.

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Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh , identifies the Old Testament as "a collection of authoritative texts of apparently divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing. By about the 5th century BC Jews saw the five books of the Torah the Old Testament Pentateuch as having authoritative status; by the 2nd century BC the Prophets had a similar status, although without quite the same level of respect as the Torah; beyond that, the Jewish scriptures were fluid, with different groups seeing authority in different books.

Hebrew texts commenced to be translated into Greek in Alexandria in about and continued until about BC. It varies in many places from the Masoretic Text and includes numerous books no longer considered canonical in some traditions: 1 and 2 Esdras , Judith , Tobit , 3 and 4 Maccabees , the Book of Wisdom , Sirach , and Baruch. The Septuagint was originally used by Hellenized Jews whose knowledge of Greek was better than Hebrew. But the texts came to be used predominantly by gentile converts to Christianity and by the early Church as its scripture, Greek being the lingua franca of the early Church.

The three most acclaimed early interpreters were Aquila of Sinope , Symmachus the Ebionite , and Theodotion ; in his Hexapla , Origen placed his edition of the Hebrew text beside its transcription in Greek letters and four parallel translations: Aquila's, Symmachus's, the Septuagint's, and Theodotion's. The so-called "fifth" and "sixth editions" were two other Greek translations supposedly miraculously discovered by students outside the towns of Jericho and Nicopolis : these were added to Origen's Octapla. Athanasius [27] recorded Alexandrian scribes around preparing Bibles for Constans.

Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus are examples of these Bibles. However, Jerome — , in his Prologue to Judith , makes the claim that the Book of Judith was "found by the Nicene Council to have been counted among the number of the Sacred Scriptures".


In Western Christianity or Christianity in the Western half of the Roman Empire , Latin had displaced Greek as the common language of the early Christians, and in AD Pope Damasus I commissioned Jerome , the leading scholar of the day, to produce an updated Latin bible to replace the Vetus Latina , which was a Latin translation of the Septuagint. Jerome's work, called the Vulgate , was a direct translation from Hebrew, since he argued for the superiority of the Hebrew texts in correcting the Septuagint on both philological and theological grounds. Jerome, however, in the Vulgate's prologues describes some portions of books in the Septuagint not found in the Hebrew Bible as being non- canonical he called them apocrypha ; [32] for Baruch , he mentions by name in his Prologue to Jeremiah and notes that it is neither read nor held among the Hebrews, but does not explicitly call it apocryphal or "not in the canon".

In the 16th century, the Protestant reformers sided with Jerome; yet although most Protestant Bibles now have only those books that appear in the Hebrew Bible, the order is that of the Greek Bible. Rome then officially adopted a canon, the Canon of Trent , which is seen as following Augustine's Carthaginian Councils [37] or the Council of Rome , [38] [39] and includes most, but not all, of the Septuagint 3 Ezra and 3 and 4 Maccabees are excluded ; [40] the Anglicans after the English Civil War adopted a compromise position, restoring the 39 Articles and keeping the extra books that were excluded by the Westminster Confession of Faith , but only for private study and for reading in churches , while Lutherans kept them for private study, gathered in an appendix as Biblical Apocrypha.

At much the same time as the Septuagint was being produced, translations were being made into Aramaic, the language of Jews living in Palestine and the Near East and likely the language of Jesus : these are called the Aramaic Targums , from a word meaning "translation", and were used to help Jewish congregations understand their scriptures.

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For Aramaic Christians there was a Syriac translation of the Hebrew Bible called the Peshitta , as well as versions in Coptic the everyday language of Egypt in the first Christian centuries, descended from ancient Egyptian , Ethiopic for use in the Ethiopian church, one of the oldest Christian churches , Armenian Armenia was the first to adopt Christianity as its official religion , and Arabic. Christianity is based on the belief that the historical Jesus is also the Christ , as in the Confession of Peter.

This belief is in turn based on Jewish understandings of the meaning of the Hebrew term messiah , which, like the Greek "Christ", means "anointed". By the time of Jesus, some Jews expected that a flesh and blood descendant of David the " Son of David " would come to establish a real Jewish kingdom in Jerusalem, instead of the Roman province. Others stressed the Son of Man , a distinctly other-worldly figure who would appear as a judge at the end of time ; and some harmonised the two by expecting a this-worldly messianic kingdom which would last for a set period and be followed by the other-worldly age or World to Come.

Some thought the Messiah was already present, but unrecognised due to Israel's sins; some thought that the Messiah would be announced by a fore-runner, probably Elijah as promised by the prophet Malachi, whose book now ends the Old Testament and precedes Mark 's account of John the Baptist. None predicted a Messiah who suffers and dies for the sins of all the people. The name "Old Testament" reflects Christianity's understanding of itself as the fulfillment of Jeremiah's prophecy of a New Covenant which is similar to "testament" and often conflated to replace the existing covenant between God and Israel Jeremiah From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

First part of Christian Bibles based on the Hebrew Bible. This article is about the Christian Bible. For the related Jewish text, see Hebrew Bible.

Canons and books. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim.

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Main articles: Biblical canon and Development of the Old Testament canon. Historical books. Books in the Appendix to the Vulgate Bible. Main articles: Books of the Bible and Biblical canon. See also: Septuagint and Masoretic Text. See also: Deuterocanonical books and Vulgate. Main article: Christian views on the Old Covenant. Ezra and Nehemiah are likewise combined in the Jewish Bible, as they are in many Orthodox Bibles, instead of divided into two books, as per the Catholic and Protestant tradition.

There is a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. Baruch is not in the Protestant Bible or the Tanakh. Susanna is included as Daniel Bel and the Dragon is included as Daniel These are not in the Protestant Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Does a theistic worldview fare better in explaining the special value of human dignity?

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